3 edition of Development of the local lymph node assay for risk assessment of chemicals and formulations found in the catalog.
Development of the local lymph node assay for risk assessment of chemicals and formulations
Health & Safety Executive
|Statement||prepared by Sygenta Central Toxicology Laboratory for the Health and Safety Executive.|
|Series||Contract Research Report -- 399/2001|
The use of analytical methods and animal models for contact sensitization such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) helps to overcome these obstacles. For example, an outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from NIOSH. Employees in the process areas of the Cited by: The assessment of dermal penetration and bioavailability (including penetration, metabolism, and entry into the systemic circulation) is therefore an important consideration in the risk assessment of chemicals. The skin is a heterogeneous organ with a multilayer by:
The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a validated, well accepted method for identification of chemical contact allergens. Both direct acting haptens and prohaptens (requiring metabolic activation) can be identified, but not differentiated by this assay. The skin is a complex and dynamic immunologic organ that also serves the primary function of maintaining a physical barrier to the environment. Yet, the skin is not a passive membrane. On the contrary, it is a viable tissue that can metabolize an assortment of environmental agents and act as a conduit. Skin absorption-penetration is a fundamental rate-limiting step in the amount of chemical.
6. Risk assessment from percutaneous absorption. Evidence-based risk assessment is difficult for each chemical with toxic potential when adequate data are insufficient. For AA showing heterogeneous physicochemical properties, the performance of studies with the same concentrations and vehicles is . Data were compiled for substances tested in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), and KeratinoSens assay. Data for six physicochemical properties that may affect skin penetration were also collected, and skin sensitization read-across predictions were Cited by:
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Michael O’Malley, in Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), Sensitization Data. In sensitization assays, a formulation with 20% 1,2-benzisothiazolinone was positive (SI > 3 for 20%, 50% dilution of test article) in the local lymph node assay; a % formulation and a % formulation were both negative in the Buehler assay.
Abstract. The local lymph node assay (LLNA) was the first alternative method to undergo formal validation for skin sensitisation hazard identification, followed by the challenges of regulatory acceptance, and so provided lessons for the entire by: Download Citation | The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay | Allergies make up a major global health problem.
After dermal contact with allergens, susceptible individuals are prone to allergic contact. The local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed originally as a method for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis.
The Draize test is an acute ocular toxicity test devised in to provide a method for assessing the irritation potential of materials that might accidentally come in contact with human eyes, such as household and office products, agricultural or environmental chemicals, and volatile organic compounds.
Because of the widespread acceptance of. The Murine local lymph node assay: BrdU-ELISA, a nonradioactive alternative test method to assess the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals and product. NIH Publication. 10–, Research Triangle Park, NC, pp 1– Google ScholarAuthor: David M.
Lehmann. Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients.
Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk by: 5. As part of a dermal sensitization risk assessment, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to evaluate the sensitization potential of 7 essential oils and 3 of their major components.
The essential oils tested were clove leaf oil, citronella oil, geranium oil, basil oil. 3) there was an absence of a local lymph node assay or guinea pig maximization test to demonstrate a lack of sensitization potential, the following were requested: • Human repeated insult patch test at maximum use concentrations.
lymph node assay or guinea pig maximization test to demonstrate a lack of sensitization potential, the following were requested: • Human repeated insult patch test at maximum use concentrations o the Panel has requested that the study includes a minimum of subjects, preferably with Fitzpatrick skin types In vitro approaches to assessment of skin irritation and phototoxicity of topically applied materials The local lymph node assay Utilization of irritation data in local lymph node assay Failure of standard test batteries for detection of genotoxic activity of some.
Fragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population.
The routine test materials for diagnosing fragrance allergy consist mainly of established mixes of Cited by: Basketter DA, Gerberick GF, Kimber I, Loveless SE. The local lymph node assay: a viable alternative to currently accepted skin sensitization tests. Food Chem Toxicol. ; – [Google Scholar] Basketter DA, Kimber I.
Predictive tests for irritants and allergens and their use in Cited by: 6 G.F. Gerberick et al., “Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for Detection of Sensitization Capacity of Chemicals,” Methods 41 (): 54– 7 K. Ennever and L.B. Lave, “Implications of the Lack of Accuracy of the Lifetime Rodent Bioassay for Predicting Human Carcinogenicity,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 38 (): 52– Development of an in vitro assay for the assessment of photosensitizers Investigation of the sensitising potential of textile dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay.
Ahuja, V. / Sonnenburg, A REACH is but the first step-on the need to improve testing and risk assessment for industrial chemicals. Ruden, C. An assessment of a published database of local lymph node assay results demonstrates that approximately 25% of sensitizing chemicals were reported to be pre‐ or prohaptens.
Even if these experiments provide valuable knowledge on the chemical reactivity of skin sensitizers, they are very far from having the conditions present in a complex.
Roberts DW, Api AM, Aptula AO. Chemical applicability domain of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency.
Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. ; – doi: / [Google Scholar]Cited by: Direct dermal exposure to Corexit ® ECA, including the surfactant DOSS, resulted in allergic contact sensitization in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development standardized Local Lymph Node Assay (EC3 = % and %, respectively) and Mouse Ear Swelling Test (Anderson et al., ).
Advances in animal alternatives for safety and efficacy testing. --Critique of cell culture methods in skin permeability assessment / Gordon L. Flynn --The local lymph node assay and other approaches to the evaluation of skin sensitizing potential / Ian Kimber --The alternative to animals for surfactant-based formulations, chemicals.
The foundational reference in dermal toxicology, this classic text has been completely revised to bring it up to date in the new Eighth Edition, with almost a third of its chapters being newly added. The structure of the text has also been reorganized to enable easier location of a topic of interest.
A local lymph node assay (LLNA) was performed according to the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline (skin sensitisation) using female CBA/J mice. Various concentrations of 1,5-naphthalenediol were assessed across two experiments.
*Scheduling Policy Framework for Medicines and Chemicals (SPF, ) Sensitisation. A local lymph node assay (LLNA) was performed according to the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline (skin sensitisation) using female CBA/J mice.
Various concentrations of 1,5-naphthalenediol were assessed across two experiments.A mixture of C C 16 ADAA was used in a local lymph node assay (LLNA) to evaluate the potential to cause skin sensitization, C C 16 ADAA was found to be a sensitizer; however, it gave a negative response for skin sensitization in in vivo guinea pigs as determined by Magnusson-Kligman test.